Another point of discussion is the proportion of trade unionists. Opponents say that after the PLA, business leaders must hire their workers through unions and unionized workers are the majority of those working on PLA projects, although non-unionized workers make up the majority of construction workers.  Estimates of the proportion of non-unionists cited by PLA opponents are about 85%, based on figures from the Us Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics and more recent data put the figure at 86.9%.  This figure is disputed by Denas, who indicates that the figures of opponents of the PLA are misleading and are based on census data that included an overly broad concept of a construction worker.  According to a 2010 Cornell University study cited by Mary Vogel, Executive Director of the Construction Institute, 60% of construction trades are unionized in Massachusetts.  Since its inception in 1998, The Construction Institute, a non-profit organization, has focused on the needs of the construction union sector in Massachusetts. (1) the commitment of all contractors and subcontractors involved in the construction work prior to the construction project to comply with the project`s employment contract; Some states and municipalities, controlled by pro-union Democrats, have passed laws or executive ordinances that encourage the use of PLA for public, state-supported and local public works projects, and exclude qualified contractors from certain public works contracts in states such as Hawaii, California, Illinois, New Jersey, New Jersey and Connecticut – and large municipalities such as New York City , Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles and Honolulu- to rebuild their own communities. A number of women and minority entrepreneurial groups oppose project contracts and claim that PPPs have a disproportionate impact on small businesses, particularly those owned by women and minorities. These groups argue that EPAs are anti-market and discriminatory.   In particular, groups, including the National Association of Women Business Owners, voted against the PLA and, in 1998, a hearing was held in the House of Representatives on the issue of minority opposition to government-mandated PLA.  The National Black Chamber of Commerce opposes the use of LTOs because of the small number of black trade unionists in the construction industry. According to the NBCC, the introduction of PLA discriminates against black-traffic workers, who are generally not unionized, and also prevents contractors from employing casual workers.
  According to the Pan-Asian American Chamber of Commerce in the United States, most of its members are small businesses that are unduly affected by THE PLA, in part because of rising costs and lower benefits for workers.  Opponents of PLA point out that agreements affect competition for project offers, which can lead to increased costs.  Opponents of the PLA, such as former CBA President Henry Kelly, argue that THE PLAs discourage non-unionized contractors from competing, or even preventing, construction projects, particularly federal ones.  The tendering statutes disincentive public sector EPS to discrimination against non-union and union contractors, since discrimination between bidders would generally constitute a violation of these statutes.   Non-union contractors have been awarded contracts for public sector projects. B, including the Boston Harbor project.  In the U.S. Supreme Court`s decision on the use of a PLA for the Boston Harbor project, it was established that project owners have the right to choose a contractor willing to enter into a pre-lease agreement and that contractors have the choice of whether or not to enter into such an agreement.
 However, in a subsequent case, the Supreme Court found the following restriction of the Boston Harbor holding company: “When we found that the public authority had acted as an operator, we noted that the impugned complaint was “specifically designed for a partic